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Various Diseases Due to Malnutrition

Lack of nutrition or malnutrition is a condition that should not be underestimated. The reason is, that if left unchecked, malnutrition can cause various complications or diseases that are dangerous to health.
Various Diseases Due to Malnutrition
Most of the causes of malnutrition in several countries are the lack of adequate food intake, for example, due to natural disasters, conflicts or wars, poverty, to social and economic crises.
Apart from these factors, a person can still experience malnutrition even though they have eaten a lot of food. This can happen if the food they eat does not contain adequate nutrients, such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, and minerals.
 Malnutrition can also be caused by certain health problems, such as intolerance or impaired absorption of nutrients, mental disorders, drug or alcohol addiction, to eating disorders, such as anorexia and bulimia.

 Health Problems Caused by Malnutrition

 Without improved nutritional intake, malnutrition can cause serious health problems, including:

 1. Kwashiorkor

 Kwashiorkor is a condition of malnutrition due to a lack of protein intake. In fact, protein is needed to repair and renew cells and body tissues, support the body's recovery process when an injury or disease occurs, and support the growth and development of fetuses, infants, and children.
 Kwashiorkor is generally more common in children and cases are still common in developing countries.
 Symptoms of this disease include fatigue, dry and scaly skin, dry or dull hair, distended stomach, loss of muscle mass, swelling under the skin (edema), mood changes, and difficulty gaining weight and height.
 Kwashiorkor can be prevented and treated by eating high protein foods, such as meat, dairy, cheese, fish, eggs, soy, nuts, and seeds.

 2. Marasmus

 Marasmus is caused by a prolonged lack of caloric intake, both from protein and carbohydrates. Marasmus can affect both children and adults and is at high risk of causing death if left untreated.
 The characteristics of people affected by marasmus are emaciated bodies and prominent bones, especially the ribs and shoulders. In addition, the skin on the arms, thighs, and buttocks of the sufferer will look slack, and his face will look like an old man's.
 Marasmus can generally be treated and prevented by following a healthy, balanced diet.

 3. Give

 Beriberi occurs because the body lacks vitamin B1 (thiamine). This vitamin plays an important role in regulating the performance and function of the nervous system and muscles, maintaining the function of the digestive tract, and the process of metabolizing carbohydrates into energy. There are 2 types of beriberi, namely wet beriberi and dry beriberi.
 Symptoms of wet beriberi include frequent awakenings at night with shortness of breath, increased heart rate, shortness of breath on exertion, and swollen lower legs. Wet beriberi generally can interfere with the performance of the heart and blood vessels.
 Meanwhile, dried beriberi can affect the nervous system. Symptoms of dry beriberi include difficulty walking, numb or tingling feet and hands, decreased muscle function in the lower legs, pain, difficulty speaking, vomiting, and nystagmus.
 To prevent beriberi, you need to eat foods rich in vitamin B1, such as milk, whole grains, oats, oranges, beef, yeast, beans, rice, and whole-grain cereals.

 4. Scurvy

 Scurvy is a disease of malnutrition due to a lack of vitamin C in the body. Vitamin C is important for the body because it plays a role in the production of collagen, absorption of iron, and the formation of immunity.
 Symptoms of scurvy include muscle and joint pain, fatigue, the appearance of red dots on the skin, bleeding and swelling of the gums and swollen and painful gums, loss of appetite, weight loss, diarrhea, nausea, and fever.
 To prevent this disease, make sure the food you eat contains vitamin C. Several choices of foods rich in vitamin C include chilies, tomatoes, broccoli, kiwi, strawberries, lemons, oranges, limes, cabbage, peppers, pineapple, papaya, mango, cantaloupe, cauliflower, and spinach.
 5. Anemia
 Anemia is a condition when the body lacks red blood cells or hemoglobin. This disease can occur due to iron deficiency.
 Iron is needed by the body to produce red blood cells which function to carry oxygen in the blood to body tissues. If the red blood cells are few, the organs and tissues of the body will not get enough oxygen.
 Iron deficiency anemia is characterized by various symptoms, namely weakness and lethargy, feeling very tired, tingling in the legs, lack of appetite, fast heartbeat, brittle nails, sore and inflamed tongue, cold hands and feet, dizziness or headache, infection, chest pain, shortness of breath, insomnia and pale skin. However, sometimes this disease may not cause any symptoms.
 Anemia can be overcome and prevented by taking iron supplements or foods rich in iron, such as meat, fish, chicken or beef liver, tofu, tempeh, eggs, nuts, seeds, brown rice, seafood, and vegetables. dark green leaves.
 Most problems caused by malnutrition will stop once the nutritional deficiency is addressed. However, there are also those that cause prolonged side effects. This usually occurs when malnutrition is severe and lasts a long time.
 Some of the complications that can occur due to malnutrition include impaired kidney function, immunodeficiency, muscle disorders, and dementia. In infants and children, malnutrition can also cause growth disorders and stunting.
 If you or your family are experiencing malnutrition or symptoms of malnutrition, such as being underweight, your body looking too thin, often sick, or often weak, and making it difficult to move, consult a doctor for examination and treatment.
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